The first reaction Newcastle Herald journalist Greg Ray had when he was invited to tour our site was ‘oh yeah, ho hum.’
Turns out, though, that it didn’t take our energy researchers long to get him excited about what we do. Read his article for his thoughts on some of the projects here at CSIRO Energy Technology including the pulverised coal engine, solar air conditioning, and SolarGas.
We’re helping remote industry look forward to more power with fewer emissions, thanks to the sun.
In the north west of Australia mining activity is expanding very rapidly. Often it’s happening in remote areas – in towns like Nullagine, which is as far away from the nearest city as London is from Warsaw. Large mining operations need a lot of power, and since many are in places with no connection to the electricity grid they have traditionally relied on what power they can generate from diesel or gas.
While today’s power sources like diesel engines and simple gas turbines are cost effective, they are not environmentally sustainable. Transporting the fuel to remote areas not only increases the cost, but also increases the carbon footprint of the fuel.To help out, CSIRO and our partners are investigating ways to make this power generation more environmentally sustainable, and we’re using the region’s most abundant natural resource – sunlight.
In this project, CSIRO and our partner GE will be designing a new gas-powered remote power station, suited to north west Australian conditions, where the natural gas gets a renewable energy ‘boost’ before it goes to the turbine. This boost happens in a solar-driven chemical reaction that upgrades the natural gas into a product called syngas. This solar-enhanced syngas, which we call SolarGas™, contains 25% more energy than the original gas – all of which has come from the heat of the sun. We walked through the process (and showed you photos of our test facility with its field of focusing mirrors) in an earlier blog post SolarGas: what’s it all about?
The sun-enhanced gas now passes to the turbine as usual, where it creates electricity. The ‘waste’ heat from this process is then harnessed to power a second turbine – a steam turbine – which creates extra electricity.
This two-turbine daisy chain, known as a combined cycle power station, is already frequently used for electricity generation. Our design will add the solar stage in the most efficient way, and model the system to see how it performs and what it’ll cost. We expect that adding solar will reduce overall cost, as well as lowering emissions.
The project will be the first time that a combined cycle power station is integrated with the SolarGas™ process in a detailed model. We hope this project will provide a stepping stone to the construction of demonstration plants in the Australian Outback.
The project, worth $700,000, will utilise CSIRO expertise in solar thermal technology and solar syngas reactors in partnership with world leaders in power station technology, GE Australia and the GE Global Research Centre in the United States.
You can read an interview with the project leader, CSIRO’s Robbie McNaughton, in the January issue of the Pilbara Echo.
The ultimate result of this work will be the use of less fossil fuel, for more power, with reduced emissions. That’s good for industry, and good for the environment!
We’re not quite sure why you’d need to know that, but if you owned a solar power station you’d be very interested in the weather forecast in 2015 we assure you!
Clouds have a huge impact on solar power. In fact, photovoltaic generation can drop by up to 60 per cent in seconds when a cloud passes over the solar panels.
Last year CSIRO released a world first report on this cloudy issue; we recognised that intermittency (cloud covering up the sun) is a major barrier to development of large-scale solar energy power plants and recommended that a solar forecasting system would help solve the issue.
Why is it such a big deal? For two major reasons: the grid and investor confidence.
The electricity grid requires a stable, consistent supply of electricity otherwise the grid becomes very difficult to manage and things like blackouts can occur. Intermittent renewable sources such as wind and solar can be a tricky energy source – naturally they do not generate a consistent supply of energy. However, through forecasting we can predict the amount of solar power that will be generated over days, weeks and even years. In this way the grid network can plan ahead and build in the solar power to the general supply.
Investors aren’t going to invest in commercial-scale solar power until we can predict their energy yield, which is directly affected by intermittency, or the amount of clouds passing overhead. Map the clouds and you map the yield, which then gives investors a much better idea of the bang they get for their buck.
So there’s the problem… now for the solution! That’s where our $7.6 million forecasting project comes in.
Australian solar energy forecasting system (ASEFS)
Announced in mid December 2012 by the Australian Solar Institute (now ARENA), this project is huge. CSIRO and partners; the Australian Energy Market Operator (AEMO), Bureau of Meteorology, University of NSW, University of South Australia, US National Renewable Energy Laboratory, will together change the future of large-scale solar in Australia, we have no doubt!
We will be using cloud forecasting techniques and data from across Australia to provide accurate solar forecasts ranging from the next five minutes up to seven days. In addition, we will be able to provide power plants with solar predictions for up to two years in advance. Imagine knowing the weather report two years in advance!
The expert running the project is CSIRO’s Dr Peter Coppin. He was also involved in CSIRO’s wind forecasting work a few years back. We asked him a couple of questions about ASEFS:
What are you most looking forward to with this project?
The most exciting aspect of this project is bringing the best possible solar forecasting to the Australian electricity system. It means we will be able to have much more solar power on the grid that we would otherwise been able to host.
What are the benefits of working with a number of partners?
This project has been able to bring together the best scientists from Australia, USA and Germany to work with the system engineers who can actually make the clever developments happen. Together we will build the world’s most advanced operational solar forecasting system.
Check out the other blog posts on our Hot New Projects, or click here for the full list. All the projects are funded by the United States-Australia Solar Energy Collaboration.
Wes Stein, manager of CSIRO’s Solar Energy Centre, was interviewed by CSP Today for an article about the new Australian solar thermal research initiative (ASTRI).
It’s a great read, we recommend a look: CSIRO embarks on cost cutting quest.
We’re making solar thermal heliostats and receivers cheaper and work better.
As you may have read in a previous post, a bunch of solar projects were recently given the green light by the Australian Renewable Energy Agency (ARENA). We’re going to run a series of posts on the CSIRO-led projects so you know exactly what some of our scientists will be working on for the next few years. First up… ‘Optimisation of central receivers for advanced power cycles’.
Let’s call this the ‘Lego’ project. We’re pulling apart the most important Lego bricks that make up concentrated solar power (CSP) technology and making them cheaper and work better: the heliostats and the receiver.
Heliostats (or mirrors) make up the ‘solar field’, they concentrate the sunshine and reflect it onto a receiver (check out the process here).
Our field in Newcastle has 450 heliostats, however some fields have thousands. As you can imagine it is a major cost for a solar power plant and there are still many improvements to be made around field layout, heliostat size, performance and lifecycle. This project will investigate all of these areas to help develop the next generation of ultra low-cost heliostats and field design.
After we reduce the price of heliostats, we move to the receivers. Our receivers need to work efficiently at temperatures exceeding 800 degrees Celsius (that’s about as hot as lava spewing from a volcano), so this is a challenge. We also need to work out the best type of receiver system for the various solar field layouts.
If we can improve the efficiency with which the heliostats and receiver work together, we can reduce the cost of supplying heat to the turbine, which reduces the cost of solar power.
It’s a big job. The project is worth $3.2 million and we’ll be working with Graphite Energy in Australia plus the U.S. Department of Energy’s national laboratories. Hopefully they’re good at playing with Lego.
For more Lego fun, check out CSIRO’s new ship, the Investigator, made of Lego.
This photo shows CSIRO’s Solar Field 2, a one megawatt-thermal solar central receiver system, in operation at CSIRO Energy Centre, Newcastle.
Click on an icon below to download the image as a desktop wallpaper for your screen size.
The winds of change have passed over our site (yes, I do bad wind power puns too). In August a new wind turbine was installed and we’re pleased to report it’s been working well and is supplying power to our buildings.
As has been mentioned before on the blog, our original turbines supplied electricity to CSIRO Energy Technology here in Newcastle for several years despite having had a bit of an (ahem) turbulent run. Installed when the site was first developed in 2003, the three 20 kW units endured a run of bad luck including two separate lightning strikes, mechanical problems, and changes to the supplier’s market support which was moved from Australia to a location 17000 kilometres away.
The northernmost turbine was removed in 2010 to make way for Solar Field 2. The remaining two were removed from their poles last year awaiting repair.
After consultation and much research CSIRO decided the best way forward was to change to a completely new turbine, which was installed on 9 August.
The new 5 kW unit has been installed on one of the existing footings and is mounted on a hydraulic tilt pole that’ll make maintenance a breeze (ba-boom). We’ve also been able to engage one of the several wind power companies that exist now and have solid track records and local backing.
The new turbine was up and running just in time to make use of the windy weather we had the following weekend (which of course, as we love to point out on this blog, gets its power from the sun).
Our new wind turbine isn’t just useful for helping power our building. It’s also part of an experiment carried out by our Smart Grid group. They use it, and all the other on-site generators (such as our many solar PV systems and our two gas microturbines), to investigate grid stability, distributed generation and intermittency management – in other words, how to make sure a region can have a constant, reliable energy supply, even when it’s coming from multiple varying sources.
I’m glad to see the new turbine up and running. When it comes to wind power, we’re huge fans.
Addendum (1.11.2012): since publishing this post I’ve been reminded by others that the three ‘original’ turbines in the photo were actually the second lot to be installed, not the first. Before them came a different set, installed by a different company, that experienced problems in a storm not long after the site opened. The supplier went out of business and was unable to maintain the turbines, which we subsequently replaced with the three shown at the top of this post.
One of the main factors leading to these problems has been that the wind market has become polarised into either supplying small units of 1 to 5 kW, or big ones of 1 to 10 MW. Our size preference of about 20 kW is in the middle – an area that’s less robustly covered by the market. This has contributed to our decision to size our newest turbine at 5 kW.