We’re helping remote industry look forward to more power with fewer emissions, thanks to the sun.
In the north west of Australia mining activity is expanding very rapidly. Often it’s happening in remote areas – in towns like Nullagine, which is as far away from the nearest city as London is from Warsaw. Large mining operations need a lot of power, and since many are in places with no connection to the electricity grid they have traditionally relied on what power they can generate from diesel or gas.
While today’s power sources like diesel engines and simple gas turbines are cost effective, they are not environmentally sustainable. Transporting the fuel to remote areas not only increases the cost, but also increases the carbon footprint of the fuel.To help out, CSIRO and our partners are investigating ways to make this power generation more environmentally sustainable, and we’re using the region’s most abundant natural resource – sunlight.
In this project, CSIRO and our partner GE will be designing a new gas-powered remote power station, suited to north west Australian conditions, where the natural gas gets a renewable energy ‘boost’ before it goes to the turbine. This boost happens in a solar-driven chemical reaction that upgrades the natural gas into a product called syngas. This solar-enhanced syngas, which we call SolarGas™, contains 25% more energy than the original gas – all of which has come from the heat of the sun. We walked through the process (and showed you photos of our test facility with its field of focusing mirrors) in an earlier blog post SolarGas: what’s it all about?
The sun-enhanced gas now passes to the turbine as usual, where it creates electricity. The ‘waste’ heat from this process is then harnessed to power a second turbine – a steam turbine – which creates extra electricity.
This two-turbine daisy chain, known as a combined cycle power station, is already frequently used for electricity generation. Our design will add the solar stage in the most efficient way, and model the system to see how it performs and what it’ll cost. We expect that adding solar will reduce overall cost, as well as lowering emissions.
The project will be the first time that a combined cycle power station is integrated with the SolarGas™ process in a detailed model. We hope this project will provide a stepping stone to the construction of demonstration plants in the Australian Outback.
The project, worth $700,000, will utilise CSIRO expertise in solar thermal technology and solar syngas reactors in partnership with world leaders in power station technology, GE Australia and the GE Global Research Centre in the United States.
You can read an interview with the project leader, CSIRO’s Robbie McNaughton, in the January issue of the Pilbara Echo.
The ultimate result of this work will be the use of less fossil fuel, for more power, with reduced emissions. That’s good for industry, and good for the environment!
We’re not quite sure why you’d need to know that, but if you owned a solar power station you’d be very interested in the weather forecast in 2015 we assure you!
Clouds have a huge impact on solar power. In fact, photovoltaic generation can drop by up to 60 per cent in seconds when a cloud passes over the solar panels.
Last year CSIRO released a world first report on this cloudy issue; we recognised that intermittency (cloud covering up the sun) is a major barrier to development of large-scale solar energy power plants and recommended that a solar forecasting system would help solve the issue.
Why is it such a big deal? For two major reasons: the grid and investor confidence.
The electricity grid requires a stable, consistent supply of electricity otherwise the grid becomes very difficult to manage and things like blackouts can occur. Intermittent renewable sources such as wind and solar can be a tricky energy source – naturally they do not generate a consistent supply of energy. However, through forecasting we can predict the amount of solar power that will be generated over days, weeks and even years. In this way the grid network can plan ahead and build in the solar power to the general supply.
Investors aren’t going to invest in commercial-scale solar power until we can predict their energy yield, which is directly affected by intermittency, or the amount of clouds passing overhead. Map the clouds and you map the yield, which then gives investors a much better idea of the bang they get for their buck.
So there’s the problem… now for the solution! That’s where our $7.6 million forecasting project comes in.
Australian solar energy forecasting system (ASEFS)
Announced in mid December 2012 by the Australian Solar Institute (now ARENA), this project is huge. CSIRO and partners; the Australian Energy Market Operator (AEMO), Bureau of Meteorology, University of NSW, University of South Australia, US National Renewable Energy Laboratory, will together change the future of large-scale solar in Australia, we have no doubt!
We will be using cloud forecasting techniques and data from across Australia to provide accurate solar forecasts ranging from the next five minutes up to seven days. In addition, we will be able to provide power plants with solar predictions for up to two years in advance. Imagine knowing the weather report two years in advance!
The expert running the project is CSIRO’s Dr Peter Coppin. He was also involved in CSIRO’s wind forecasting work a few years back. We asked him a couple of questions about ASEFS:
What are you most looking forward to with this project?
The most exciting aspect of this project is bringing the best possible solar forecasting to the Australian electricity system. It means we will be able to have much more solar power on the grid that we would otherwise been able to host.
What are the benefits of working with a number of partners?
This project has been able to bring together the best scientists from Australia, USA and Germany to work with the system engineers who can actually make the clever developments happen. Together we will build the world’s most advanced operational solar forecasting system.
Check out the other blog posts on our Hot New Projects, or click here for the full list. All the projects are funded by the United States-Australia Solar Energy Collaboration.
Some lucky students in Canberra won’t just be hitting the books when they head back to school next week – they will also become junior CSIRO scientists, helping us with our solar research.
Solar research stations have been set up in four Canberra schools to help CSIRO study the output of photovoltaic (PV) panels. The data will help us to predict the behaviour of PV panels in urban areas and could help future power supply planning.
The school’s PV panels are connected to a website where the data can be monitored in real-time.
More schools will join the research program this year!
We’re so excited at CSIRO we’re doing our best impersonation of Singin’ in the Rain – complete with solar tower backdrop. And yes – some of these researchers are keeping their excitement on the inside.
The cause of all the excitement? The newly announced $87 million, eight year, research partnership – the Australian solar thermal research – between CSIRO, six Australian universities and collaborators from the United States. This huge collaboration ensures Australia remains at the forefront of concentrated solar power technologies.
Also announced this week, another four projects worth $14 million as part the Australian Solar Institute’s United States-Australia solar energy collaboration. The projects will focus on different areas of solar energy production including a solar energy forecasting system and advanced central receivers.
We’ll be working with the world’s best and brightest. Just some of our many partners include GE, the US Department of Energy’s National Research Laboratory (NREL), Sandia National Laboratories and Arizona State University.
For more info, check out the media release on our website.
In yesterday’s post you saw how we make SolarGas™. Here, I’ll take you through some of the ways it can be used. As you can see in the diagram below, it’s a versatile product.
I’ll explain a few of these uses point-by-point. The numbers refer to the diagram.
1. SolarGas can be burned to get heat or electricity
SolarGas is a combustible fuel, just like the original natural gas – but here’s the important thing: if you burn it, you get around 25% more energy than there was in the original natural gas. This extra energy is the ‘solar upgrade’.
For example, if you were to use SolarGas in your gas stove to boil five eggs for breakfast, it’d be as if you were cooking one of those eggs with pure solar power. (The energy for the other four would have come from what was already present in the original natural gas). You can also think about it like this: you’ve boiled five eggs, but you’ve only generated the greenhouse gas emissions associated with boiling four. Or, to put it yet another way, five eggs have been boiled, but we only had to take enough natural gas out of the ground to cook four.
Likewise, if we’re talking about burning the gas in a 5 megawatt turbine to make electricity, it’s like we’re getting five megawatts for the environmental ‘price’ of four. Given that natural gas use is projected to remain a significant source of energy in Australia in the coming decades, wouldn’t it be great if we could in effect get a bonus amount of energy from the resources we have, by adding solar power?
2. SolarGas can be used to build transport fuels
The SolarGas molecules are extremely nifty and useful little chemical building blocks. They are ideal for connecting together in a process called Fischer-Tropsch to make fuels like methanol or diesel.
These building blocks are so useful, in fact, that there already exists a significant industry that makes them using more traditional methods. In the traditional process the extra energy in the product gas, which is called Synthesis Gas or syngas for short, comes not from the sun, but by burning part of the natural gas.
By using the SolarGas process instead of the traditional syngas process, we end up with the same product but with less consumption of fossil fuels, and less production of greenhouse gases. And again, if you used the product fuel to run a car, that car would be partly powered by sunshine.
3. SolarGas can be used to make hydrogen
SolarGas is already 3/4 hydrogen gas by volume, but we can increase the amount of hydrogen by putting it through what’s called a Shift Reactor. Ever see all those episodes of Top Gear where they speculate on a future where our cars run off hydrogen fuel? Hydrogen is only truly environmentally friendly if it’s made using renewables – and this process goes a long way towards satisfying this requirement.
For example, most of the hydrogen produced in the world today is made by the traditional syngas process described above – which burns natural gas to get the energy required. Globally, this process is used to produce about 80 million tonnes of hydrogen every year (and growing!), which creates about 1.5 billion tonnes of carbon dioxide… which is about three times Australia’s annual emissions. What a difference we could make if SolarGas becomes the process of future industry.
4. The stored solar energy can be recovered in the form of heat.
If we wanted, we could extract the solar energy from the SolarGas by reversing the original reaction. This recreates the original natural gas – which can be re-used – and releases the solar energy in the form of heat at about 300°C. In essence, then, the natural gas is in a ‘closed-loop’ system – it goes round and round, picking up solar energy, storing it until it’s needed, releasing it, and then starting the cycle again.
5. Waste heat from making SolarGas can be put to other uses
No matter what is done with the SolarGas, in the process of making it there’ll be some ‘waste’ heat. As with the last scenario, this heat will be at temperatures lower than the original 800°C (otherwise we’d use it to produce more SolarGas). Even so, it’s a whole lot of energy that we can use to provide further efficiency by combining it with other processes. In the future, this ‘waste’ heat – the stuff that disappears up the chimney in conventional processes – will be used to provide further benefits like industrial process heat, air-conditioning and refrigeration and water desalination.
So that’s my go at explaining why we at CSIRO think SolarGas is a great project to be developing. Of course, there’s always more to read on the CSIRO website as well. Any further questions? Leave a comment!
It’s a clear spring day in this photo of Solar Field 1 at our Newcastle site. There’s obviously plenty of sunshine to power solar panels or solar turbines. But in this case there’s more going on than meets the eye. Even after the sun has set we’ll still have a supply of solar energy, thanks to what’s in the small shed circled below.
In the shed is a group of gas cylinders. They’re holding the product of a process that CSIRO has developed to near commercial demonstration that captures and stores solar energy for later use. Because the added solar energy is stored in the chemical bonds of a gas, we call the product SolarGas™.
SolarGas isn’t just a way of storing solar energy. It’s also a way to add solar energy to fuels like natural gas, and it can even be used in production of many liquid fuels and fine chemicals which currently rely on finite fossil fuel feedstocks. It’s been one of the main areas of research and development for our solar thermal team over the last decade, and that’s because we think it’s a really versatile product that’s well suited for Australian resources and needs.
I get asked questions about SolarGas all the time from people ranging from school students to scientists. For people who don’t work in process industries (that’s most of you, I’m guessing) I’ve realised that to really get across why SolarGas has so much potential, it’s necessary to take a bit of time to start at the beginning and explain the concepts involved. Unlike a system that produces electricity – which we can all relate to, because we use it to power our kitchen blenders and so on – SolarGas applications are more varied and perhaps might seem a bit further from home (related more closely to, say, the industrial manufacture of hydrogen rather than lighting our houses at night). Nonetheless, it has the potential to have huge benefits that are worth understanding. That’s why I’ve chosen to spread this article over two sections, and why I’m going to write it for the sort of reader who prefers to call a fire ‘hot’ rather than ‘exothermic’. No apologies.
How it’s made
To make SolarGas, we use mirrors to focus solar energy onto a series of metal pipes, which creates temperatures of around 800°C inside them. Through these pipes we flow a stream of natural gas mixed with something else. This ‘something else’ can be steam or carbon dioxide – both pretty common ingredients, suited to different situations.
These metal pipes form our SolarGas Reactor, and they have been carefully designed so that inside them the conditions are right for a chemical reaction to occur. This reaction converts the natural gas and steam (or carbon dioxide) to a new mix of gases, and in the process ‘sucks up’ a whole lot of solar energy into the new gas molecules in what is called an endothermic reaction. If you could touch the pipes where the reaction is going on (and we wouldn’t recommend it) you’d feel that they’re actually cooled as energy transfers from solar heat to chemical bonds – thus changing it into a form that, unlike the energy in sunlight, can be stored in bottles or pumped from place to place.
It’s interesting to note that steam and carbon dioxide are the products of normal combustion. So here, where we’re using them as the reactants, we’re in essence turning the usual reaction around using energy from the sun. That’s neat.
So, the result is that we’ve produced a new gas that has more energy than the gas we started with – and this extra energy came from the sun. The video below gives an overview of the process. In this example, the more common steam version of the reaction is shown.
You might have noticed that the video shows what SolarGas is. It’s made up of hydrogen and carbon monoxide – specifically, three units of hydrogen gas for every molecule of carbon monoxide gas. This mixture makes the gas very useful in a number of ways.
But that’s a topic that deserves a post of its own. Next: Part II – how it can be used.
Renewable energy is a hot topic. If you turn on the TV or open a newspaper, it won’t be long before you come across a news article or opinion piece about energy, whether it be technical, economic, social or political. So with all these (sometimes heated) arguments underway, and with issues like resource availability and climate change at stake, it’s more important than ever that we have clear answers to questions like these:
- is there actually enough renewable energy to satisfy our global power needs?
- is there enough money and material available to be able to harness this energy?, and
- if so, what has to happen to make it a reality?
That’s why the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has recently released a special report on the potential of renewable energy. The report, called the ‘Special Report on Renewable Energy Sources and Climate Change Mitigation,’ was compiled by over 120 researchers from all over the world according to peer-revieved scientific data. We’re really proud that one of these contributers was CSIRO’s Wes Stein, who was a lead author on the Solar Energy chapter.
The report’s findings in a nutshell? Using just a small fraction of the world’s available renewable energy, almost 80% of the global energy supply could be met by renewables by mid-century – but the support of governments will be essential if renewables are to meet their full potential.
As you might guess, doing the research for this report was a mammoth undertaking. The physicist Niels Bohr was known to say wryly, ‘It’s difficult to make predictions – especially about the future,’ and the report authors were well aware of the problems involved. Consider, for example, a future where governments set a strict, low target for CO2 emissions. This future will have a different amount of renewable energy installed than a future which has less strict targets. Likewise, how much solar and wind are installed will be very different in a world where people decide to limit the building of new nuclear power plants, compared to a world where we choose to rely heavily on nuclear.
So instead of guessing what the future might bring, the report authors decided to consider 164 different scenarios – all with different types of governmental policies, emissions targets, community attitudes to technologies and so on – and modelled them all. Four scenarios were presented as in-depth examples in the report.
The majority of scenarios predicted that renewable energy production will increase significantly by mid-century – specifically, three-fold to over ten-fold increases in (non-biomass) renewables are projected in the report. This leads to a world where 30% or more of our energy comes from renewable sources. In fact, in the most optimistic scenario, it was shown to be feasible that as much as 77% of the world’s energy will come from renewables by 2050. The factor that had the most influence on outcomes was the level of government support. Renewables became more feasible in scenarios where it was assumed that our governments enacted policies, such as putting a price on carbon, that helped those energy technologies become economically attractive.
And what about solar energy in particular? It has the largest technical potential of all the renewable sources, supplying about 8,000 times as much energy as the world uses, and in some scenarios it is one of the major sources of global energy supply in 2050. But its future is highly dependent on whether its cost decreases quickly enough. At CSIRO we’re helping this process along by improving the technologies to make them less expensive – but this IPCC report shows that policymakers will need to contribute too, for solar to have the brightest future possible.
Download the full IPCC Renewable Energy report here (file size 28 MB) or see a presentation summarising the key findings here (6 MB). The chapter on solar energy, for which Wes Stein is a lead author, is found here.